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Basic knowledge and steps of raising cattle (cow raising technology)

1. Feeding
Fattening cattle grow fast and have a higher demand for nutrition, so it should be scientifically matched with feed and reasonably supplied.
First of all, let's talk about the mix of feed. The nutrition of the feed must be sufficient and comprehensive, including energy, protein, minerals, vitamins and crude fiber. In the early stage of fattening, the growth of the skeleton must pay attention to the supplementation of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. In the middle stage of fattening, muscle For growth, we must pay attention to the amount of protein feed. In the later stage of fattening, we must pay attention to the amount of energy feed. In addition, we should adjust the feed mix according to different seasons. If the weather is cold in winter, we can reduce the amount of wheat bran and increase the amount of fat. In summer, the hot weather can increase the feeding amount of wheat bran and green juicy feed and reduce the feeding amount of energy and protein.
Next, let's talk about the supply of feed. The dry matter of fattening cattle's diet accounts for about 2.8% of the body weight. The ratio of concentrated to roughage in the early fattening period is 4:6, and the ratio of concentrated and roughage in the middle and later period of fattening is 5:5. You can follow the This data calculates the feed amount of fattening cattle at different stages. If the feed intake of fattening cattle is far from the theoretical feeding amount, the quality of the feed should be considered. Poor quality, mildew, corruption, freezing, etc. will affect the palatability of the feed.
Finally, let's talk about the feeding time arrangement. Fattening cattle can be fed twice a day, that is, twice in the morning and in the evening. In summer, before 6:00 in the morning and after 7:00 in the afternoon, they can be fed with green and juicy feed at noon, and in winter. After 7:00 in the morning and before 5:00 in the afternoon, the green hay feed can be supplemented once at night. The morning feeding amount accounts for about 40% of the total ration, and the evening feeding accounts for about 60% of the total ration. In addition, it should be noted that the leftover material in the feeding trough should be cleaned up before each feeding, so as not to affect the appetite of the fattening cattle and the leftover material for a long time to cause mildew.

2. Management
Routine management is also critical to the growth of fattening cattle. Only by creating a suitable environment for fattening cattle can the growth rate be improved.
The first is environmental sanitation. The manure in the cowshed should be cleaned up in time and transported to a place far away from the cowshed for accumulation and fermentation. It is not allowed to pile manure in the cowshed for a long time.
The second is regular disinfection, once every 3-5 days in summer, and once every 7-10 days in winter. The cowshed should be cleaned before each disinfection, and every corner should not be spared during disinfection, and the disinfection drugs need to be replaced regularly.
The third ventilation, the cowshed should open the windows frequently for ventilation, in order to reduce the humidity and toxic and harmful gas content in the cowshed and improve the air quality.
Cooling in the fourth summer, high temperature and high humidity in summer will not only affect the normal feeding and growth of cattle, but also affect the health of cattle. Cooling measures should be taken, such as building awnings, installing exhaust fans or cooling water curtains, spray cooling, etc.
Fifth, keep warm in winter. The severe cold in winter will increase the energy consumption required by fattening cattle to keep out the cold. Doing good insulation work can reduce the energy consumption of fattening cattle and improve the feed utilization rate and growth rate, such as building a greenhouse and installing a heating furnace. While maintaining good heat preservation, ventilation should not be neglected, and a balance point should be reached between the two.
The sixth is to prevent mosquitoes and flies. More mosquitoes and flies in summer will not only spread diseases, but also affect the feeding and rest of fattening cattle. It can be used to control mosquitoes by spraying drugs, installing window screens, and hanging mosquito killer lamps. fly.

3. Epidemic prevention
Fattening cows have a huge impact on growth when they are sick. First, the fattening cows stop gaining weight or even lose fat during the illness, and even if they are well, they will be affected by drugs, physical fitness and other factors for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to do various epidemic prevention work to reduce or prevent fattening cattle from getting sick.
After the introduction of the calves, it is best to inject the hyperimmune serum of the relevant diseases first, and inject the hyperimmune serum of the disease with the high incidence of the disease in the introduction place and local area. And if there is no problem, inject the corresponding vaccine to strengthen the immunization. In the follow-up feeding process, the fattening cows are regularly injected with vaccine according to the immunization period of the vaccine until they are put out. Generally, the diseases that fattening cattle need to be immunized against are bovine foot-and-mouth disease, bovine infectious pleuropneumonia and nubuck. Bovine foot-and-mouth disease, etc., among which the polyvalent vaccine is best used for bovine foot-and-mouth disease.
During the feeding process of fattening cattle, deworming should also be carried out several times. The first deworming can be carried out 15 to 20 days after the introduction of cattle. You can choose subcutaneous injection of ivermectin and albendazole (or levamisole) for oral combined deworming. For worms, you can also choose ivermectin and albendazole (or levamisole) mixed powder or tablet orally for deworming. Ivermectin subcutaneous injection has a good absorption effect but is more troublesome, and oral absorption is unstable but saves trouble, everyone It can be selected according to the situation. Oral deworming is best when feeding fattening cattle in the morning on an empty stomach.
In addition, during the feeding process of fattening cattle, some health-care drugs should be fed, such as stomachic drugs, probiotic preparations, electrolytic multivitamins, astragalus polysaccharides, etc., to enhance the digestive ability and disease resistance of fattening cattle.