Improve feed utilization and reduce feed energy consumption
How to use feed to a greater extent and price breeding costs, the following points are for reference:
Mechanical processing reduces feed waste and improves palatability. After the roughage is cut short, it is easy to mix and chew. After the concentrated feed is ground, it is conducive to the thorough mixing of the digestive juices. Specific fineness requirements: pigs should be less than 1 mm, cattle and sheep can be 1-2 mm, horses and small livestock can be 2-4 mm. The sweet potato leaves used for feeding pigs are soaked to dissolve impurities. The moldy dried melon can quickly dissolve the toxic substances after soaking. After cooking, dried melon or sweet potato noodles can further improve the palatability and expand the crude fiber, which is conducive to the penetration of digestive juice.
Chemical treatment can improve the nutritional value of roughage. The commonly used chemical treatment methods are alkalization or ammoniation, which uses the action of alkaline components to destroy the structure of lignin in forages, dissolve silicates in it, and convert those nutrients related to lignin such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The liberation of vegetarian food increases the nutritional value of the feed, and animals also love to eat.
Biological treatment can promote material transformation, improve nutritional value and digestibility. After the feed is saccharified, the nutrients are degraded, and the palatability is greatly improved, which is more conducive to the digestion and absorption of nutrients. After the feed is fermented, the crude fiber is degraded, and it can also produce vitamin B family, organic acids, alcohols and other aromatic and stimulating substances, improve digestion and nutritional status, and further increase productivity.
The nutritional components of a single feed are not perfect and cannot meet the nutritional needs of livestock and poultry. The use of compound feed can achieve the effect of learning from each other's strengths and complementing the shortcomings, and can make full use of the nutrients in each component, especially the addition of various essential amino acids, which can greatly improve the feed utilization rate. . The microorganisms in the rumen of ruminants can use inorganic nitrogen to synthesize bacterial protein. In order to improve the synthesis of bacterial protein, 0.02%~0.05% urea can be added to the ruminant animal feed, and 1 kg of urea can replace 6~7 kg of bean cakes . Broiler chickens grow and develop very fast. Adding 1% to 5% animal fat in the diet has a good effect on improving the utilization rate of feed.
In order to prevent waste caused by the selection of livestock and poultry, the feed for pigs, chickens and other animals should be finely crushed and all mixed and used. The feed should be chopped as much as possible, and water should be sprayed into the roughage before adding wheat bran and crushed concentrate. The use of dry powder is more wasteful and wasteful, and the use of wet mix can reduce waste. For those who are fed in batches, do not feed too much at one time, and add less frequent feeding to prevent picky and waste, and the leftovers should be cleaned up in time. If ad libitum feeding is used, the structure and height of the trough should be improved.
Feed formulation should not only meet the nutritional needs of animals, but also meet the physiological characteristics of animals' digestion.
Pigs are omnivores. The characteristics of the stomach are between carnivores and ruminants. The acidity can reach 0.35%~0.45%. It can use a variety of plant and animal feeds. secretion of gastric juice. Ruminants such as cattle and sheep have a large rumen with a strong microflora in the rumen. The acidity in the abomasum is only 0.12%~3.0%, which can make full use of crude fiber and mainly eat plant-based feed. The utilization rate is very low. If animal feed is added to the feed of ruminant animals such as cattle and sheep, it is not easy to be fully and effectively used, and it is easy to cause some infectious diseases, such as the epidemic of mad cow disease, because animal feed is added to cattle feed. The feed is especially caused by bovine vertebrae and spinal cord. Chickens have no teeth, and the intestines are very short, so the digestibility of crude fiber is very low. Generally, the crude fiber content in the feed is required to be 2.5%~5%. If too much roughage is added to the chicken feed, it can only increase the feed consumption. Increase capital investment.